Bacterial Vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a condition that happens when there is too much of certain bacteria in the vagina. Many women with BV don’t have symptoms but those who do may notice a thin white or gray vaginal discharge, pain, itching, or burning in the vagina, strong odor, or burning when urinating. The infection typically occurs in sexually active women. BV is the most common vaginal infection in women ages 15-44.


Birth Control

Birth Control is any method used to prevent pregnancy. It can also help reduce pain during ovulation, premenstrual symptoms and acne


The name endometriosis comes from the word “endometrium,” the tissue that lines the inside of the uterus. If a woman is not pregnant this tissue builds up and is shed each month. It is discharged as menstrual flow at the end of each cycle. In endometriosis, tissue that looks and acts like endometrial tissue is found outside the uterus, usually inside the abdominal cavity.

WebMD – Facts About Endometriosis

Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is usually caused by changes in hormone levels. In some cases the cause of the bleeding isn’t known.

Normally one of your ovaries releases an egg during your menstrual cycle. This is called ovulation. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is often triggered when women don’t ovulate. This causes changes in hormone levels and in some cases can lead to unexpected vaginal bleeding.

WebMD – Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding – Topic Overview

Hormone Replacement Therapy

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is used to relieve menopause symptoms, especially hot flashes. A woman on hormone therapy usually takes both estrogen and progestin (typically a synthetic form of progesterone). Women who have had a hysterectomy can take estrogen alone. Estrogen relieves hot flashes and prevents osteoporosis, but estrogen can increase your risk of developing uterine cancer. Progestin is added in women with a uterus to prevent this.

WebMD – Breast Cancer: Hormone Replacement Therapy and Cancer Risk

Hot Flashes

Menopause affects every woman in time, and although it’s not a disease, menopause can have a big effect on a woman’s health. Hot flashes are the most frequent symptoms of menopause. A hot flash is a momentary sensation of heat that may be accompanied by a red, flushed face and sweating. Most women experience this stage after age 40 and spend a third of their life in this phase.

HPV (Humanpapillomavirus)

HPV virus is common and infects at least 50% of all people who have sex at some time in their lives.1 Often, people don’t have any symptoms and the HPV infection goes away on its own.1 Some types of HPV can lead to cervical cancer or cancer of the anus or penis.1
HPV stands for human papillomavirus (pronounced pap ah LO mah), but there are actually more than 100 related viruses in this group.1 Each HPV virus is given a number or type. The term “papilloma” refers to a kind of wart that result from some types of HPV.1

HPV viruses live in the body’s epithelial cells.1 These are flat and thin cells found on the skin’s surface and also on the surface of the vagina, anus, vulva, cervix, penis head, mouth, and throat.1

WebMD – HPV Virus: Information About Human Papillomavirus

Oral Contraception

Combination pills may reduce acne, pain during ovulation, and premenstrual symptoms. Both types of pill reduce heavy bleeding and cramping. Unlike the combination pill, the progestin-only pill can be taken by almost all women, including those who are breast-feeding, although it must be taken at the same time each day to be effective. (Combination pills are also taken daily but without as much attention to the time of day.) When you first start taking either type of birth control pill, it is necessary to use a backup birth control method for the first week.

WebMD – Birth Control – Birth Control Methods

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms that results from a hormonal imbalance affecting women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS usually have at least two of the three following conditions- irregular menstrual periods, high levels of androgens (a type of hormone), or cysts on one or both ovaries.[1] Common symptoms include excess hair growth, acne, and obesity. The exact cause of polycystic ovary syndrome is unknown but early diagnosis and treatment along with weight loss may reduce the risk of long-term complications, such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.[2]


Uterine Fibroids

Uterine fibroids are benign tumors that are made up of the muscle and connective tissue from the wall of the uterus (womb). Fibroids may grow as a single nodule or in clusters and may range in size from 1 mm to more than 20 cm (8 inches) in diameter. They may grow within the wall of the uterus or they may project into the interior cavity or toward the outer surface of the uterus. In rare cases, they may grow on stems projecting from the surface of the uterus.

WebMD – Sexual Health: Your Guide to Uterine Fibroids

Vaginal Dryness

Vaginal dryness is a common symptom of menopause. About one out of every three women experiences it during this change. It is also even more common after menopause. Vaginal dryness also can be experienced at any age, and from a variety of different causes. Some of these include childbirth, breastfeeding, radiation and chemotherapy.


Vaginal Infections

Vaginal infections are also known as vaginitis. They are inflammation of the vagina that can create odor, irritation, discharge, or itching. A vaginal infection is difficult to diagnose because there are several different types and causes.


Yeast Infections

A vaginal yeast infection is an infection that occurs when there is overgrowth of the yeast called Candida. Women with yeast infections typically experience genital itching, burning and sometimes vaginal discharge. Yeast infections are relatively common – nearly 75% of all adult women have had at least one in their lifetime.