General Medicine

General Medicine

On the cutting edge of research

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Clinical trials play a critical role in advancing the field of general medicine by providing a platform for the development and testing of new treatments and therapies. These trials are designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of new drugs, medical devices, and other interventions, and to help researchers better understand the underlying mechanisms of disease.

As a clinical trials company, we are dedicated to supporting the development of new treatments and therapies in the field of general medicine. Our team of experienced professionals works closely with researchers, physicians, and patients to ensure that trials are conducted safely and effectively, and that the results are accurate and reliable.

At Segal trials, we are proud to play a part in advancing the field of general medicine, and we look forward to continuing to support the development of new treatments and therapies in the years to come. Whether you are a researcher, physician, or patient, we are here to help you navigate the complex world of clinical trials and to support you in achieving your goals.


Segal Trials has successfully conducted numerous Phase I-IV inpatient & outpatient research studies within the scope of general medicine. Trials conducted have involved Anemia, Arthritis, Asthma, Migraine, Binge eating disorder, Fibromyalgia, Lower Back Pain, Erectile Dysfunction, Hepatitis C, etc.

Anemia is a condition that develops when your blood lacks enough healthy red blood cells. These cells are the main transporters of oxygen to organs. If red blood cells are also deficient in hemoglobin, then your body isn’t getting enough iron. Symptoms of anemia — like fatigue — occur because organs aren’t getting enough oxygen.

Understanding Anemia – the Basics

Arthritis is a general term that means inflammation in joints. Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease, is the most common type of arthritis. It is associated with a breakdown of cartilage in joints and can occur in almost any joint in the body. It most commonly occurs in the weight bearing joints of the hips, knees and spine. It can also affect the fingers, thumb, neck, and large toe. It usually does not affect other joints unless previous injury or excessive stress is involved.

Cartilage is a firm, rubbery material that covers the ends of bones in normal joints. Its main function is to reduce friction in the joints and serve as a “shock absorber.” The shock-absorbing quality of normal cartilage comes from its ability to change shape when compressed (flattened or pressed together).

Osteoarthritis causes the cartilage in a joint to become stiff and lose its elasticity, making it more susceptible to damage. Over time, the cartilage may wear away in some areas, greatly decreasing its ability to act as a shock absorber. As the cartilage deteriorates, tendons and ligaments stretch, causing pain. If the condition worsens, the bones could rub against each other. Osteoarthritis can occur in any joint, but most often affects the hands and weight-bearing joints such as the knee, hip and facet joints (in the spine). Osteoarthritis often occurs as the cartilage breaks down, or degenerates, with age. For this reason, osteoarthritis is sometimes called degenerative joint disease.

WebMD – Arthritis: Osteoarthritis Basics

Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways that makes breathing difficult. With asthma, there is inflammation of the air passages that result in a temporary narrowing of the airways that carry oxygen to the lungs. This results in asthma symptoms, including coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Some people refer to asthma as “bronchial asthma.”

WebMD – What Is Asthma?

Binge-eating disorder is an eating disorder in which the person cannot control what or how much they are eating. It is not occasional overeating. Binge eating disorder usually stems from mental health or emotional problems. A person with this disorder may often eat in privacy until they are not hungry or feel sick. An episode of binge eating is not followed by satisfaction but shame, disgust, or guilt instead.


Constipation means that a person has three or fewer bowel movement in a week. The stool can be hard and dry. Sometimes it is painful to pass. At one time or another, almost everyone gets constipated. In most cases, it lasts a short time and is not serious.

Medline Plus – Constipation

Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism–the way our bodies use digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food we eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When we eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into our cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.

WebMD – Diabetes Overview

Erectile dysfunction, commonly referred to as ED, is the inability to achieve and sustain an erection suitable for sexual intercourse. This condition is not considered normal at any age and is different from other problems that interfere with sexual intercourse, such as lack of sexual desire and problems with ejaculation and orgasm.

WebMD – Erectile Dysfunction Basics

Fibromyalgia is a condition characterized by aching and pain in muscles, tendons, and joints all over the body, but especially along the spine. The body also is tender to touch in specific areas, called tender or trigger points. The primary symptom is pain, and stress can make fibromyalgia symptoms worse.

Fibromyalgia is not associated with muscle, nerve or joint injury; inadequate muscle repair; or any serious bodily damage or disease. Also, people who have fibromyalgia are not at greater risk for any other musculoskeletal disease.

WebMD – Arthritis: Fibromyalgia

Genital warts, also known as venereal warts or condylomata acuminata, are one of the most common types of sexually transmitted diseases.1 As the name suggests, genital warts affect the moist tissues of the genital area.1 They may look like small, flesh-colored bumps or have a cauliflower-like appearance.1 Genital warts may be very small, or they may multiply into large clusters.1
In women, genital warts can grow on the vulva, the walls of the vagina, the area between the external genitals and the anus, and the cervix.1 In men, they may occur on the tip or shaft of the penis, the scrotum or the anus.1 Genital warts can also develop in the mouth or throat of a person who has had oral sexual contact with an infected person.1

Like warts that appear on other areas of your skin, genital warts are caused by a virus – HPV – that infects the top layers of your skin.1 There are more than 100 different types of HPV, but only a few can cause genital warts.1These strains of the virus are highly contagious and spread through sexual contact with an infected person.1About two-thirds of people who have sexual contact with someone who has genital warts develop the condition – usually within three months of contact, but in some cases not for years.1

References – Genital Warts: Basics

Hepatitis A is a liver infection caused by a virus. It goes away on its own in almost all cases. Hepatitis A does not lead to long-term liver problems.

Hepatitis B is a virus that infects the liver. Most adults who get hepatitis B have it for a short time and then get better. This is called acute hepatitis B.

You can have hepatitis B and not know it. You may not have symptoms. If you do, they can make you feel like you have the flu. But as long as you have the virus, you can spread it to others.

Sometimes the virus causes a long-term infection, called chronic hepatitis B. Over time, it can damage your liver. Babies and young children infected with the virus are more likely to get chronic hepatitis B.

Hepatitis C is a disease caused by a virus that infects the liver. In time, it can lead to permanent liver damage as well as cirrhosis, liver cancer, and liver failure.

Many people do not know that they have hepatitis C until they already have some liver damage. This can take many years. Some people who get hepatitis C have it for a short time and then get better. This is called acute hepatitis C. But most people who are infected with the virus go on to develop long-term, or chronic, hepatitis C.

WebMD – Hepatitis Health Center

Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against blood vessel walls. The heart pumps blood into the arteries (blood vessels), which carry the blood throughout the body. High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is dangerous because it makes the heart work harder to pump blood to the body and it contributes to hardening of the arteries or atherosclerosis and the development of heart failure.

WebMD – Hypertension: Blood Pressure Basics

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance made in the liver and found in certain foods, such as food from animals, like dairy products (whole milk), eggs and meat.

The body needs some cholesterol in order to function properly. Its cell walls, or membranes, need cholesterol in order to produce hormones, vitamin D and the bile acids that help to digest fat. But, the body needs only a small amount of cholesterol to meet its needs. When too much is present health problems such as coronary heart disease may develop.

WebMD – High Cholesterol: Cholesterol Basics

Irritable bowel syndrome or IBS affects up to 55 million Americans, mostly women.1 IBS causes are unknown and symptoms include diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal cramps.1 There are IBS treatments such as diet and lifestyle changes and medications that can help.1
The main symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are belly pain with constipation or diarrhea.1 Other common symptoms are bloating, mucus in the stools, or a feeling that you have not completely emptied your bowels.1

Many people with IBS go back and forth between having constipation and having diarrhea.1 For most people, one of these happens more often than the other.1

IBS is quite common, and most people’s symptoms are so mild that they never see a doctor for treatment.1 But some people may have troublesome symptoms, especially stomach cramps, bloating, and diarrhea.1

WebMD – Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Guide

Lower back pain is pain that can lead to stiffness in the back, difficulty standing straight and limited movement of the back. It can be caused by a variety of irritations or straining of a number structures in the back such as the large nerve roots, lower back muscles or the large paired lower back muscles.


Migraine is a neurologic disorder that often causes a strong headache. The headache comes in episodes and sometimes also comes with nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light.

Migraine Symptoms
Migraine is different in everyone. In many people, it happens in stages. These stages may include:


Hours or days before a headache, about 60% of people who have migraine notice symptoms like:

Being sensitive to light, sound, or smell
Food cravings or lack of appetite
Mood changes
Severe thirst
Constipation or diarrhea

Reference: WebMD – Migraines

Being obese means having so much body fat that your health is in danger. Having too much body fat can lead to type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, arthritis, sleep apnea, and stroke.

WebMD – Obesity – Overview

Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease, is the most common type of arthritis.1 It is associated with a breakdown of cartilage in joints and can occur in almost any joint in the body.1 It most commonly occurs in the weight bearing joints of the hips, knees, and spine.1 It can also affect the fingers, thumb, neck, and large toe.1 It usually does not affect other joints unless previous injury or excessive stress is involved.1
Osteoarthritis causes the cartilage in a joint to become stiff and lose its elasticity, making it more susceptible to damage.1 Over time, the cartilage may wear away in some areas, greatly decreasing its ability to act as a shock absorber.1 As the cartilage deteriorates, tendons and ligaments stretch, causing pain.1 If the condition worsens, the bones could rub against each other.1

Osteoarthritis affects nearly 21 million Americans.1 The chance of developing the disease increases with age and most people over age 60 have osteoarthritis to some degree, though its severity varies.1 In people over 50, more women than men get osteoarthritis.1

WebMD – The Basics of Osteoarthritis

Osteoporosis is a common disease that weakens bones; as it does, your risk of sudden and unexpected fractures increases.1 Osteopenia is the forerunner of osteoporosis, which is a silent but destructive condition that robs bones during a woman’s — even a young woman’s — most productive time.1
No matter what your age or sex, osteoporosis and osteopenia can affect you.1 In fact, there are usually no visible signs.1 You may notice a loss of height or a Dowager’s hump over time.1 But chances are good the first sign that you have one of these conditions will be a painful fracture.1

WebMD – Osteoporosis Guide

Premature ejaculation is uncontrolled ejaculation either before or shortly after sexual penetration, with minimal sexual stimulation and before the person wishes. It may result in an unsatisfactory sexual experience for both partners. This can increase the anxiety that may contribute to the problem. Premature ejaculation is one of the most common forms of male sexual dysfunction and has probably affected every man at some point in his life.

WebMD – Premature Ejaculation

The Center for Disease Control estimates that there are approximately 19 million new sexually transmitted disease (STD) infections each year. Almost half of these annual new infections them among young people 15 to 24 years of age. Most STDs have no symptoms and often go undiagnosed and untreated, which may lead to severe health consequences, especially for women.

Knowing your STD status is a critical step to stopping STD transmission. Many STDs can be easily diagnosed and treated and if you know you are infected you can take steps to protect yourself and your partners.


Tardive dyskinesia is a side effect of antipsychotic medications. These drugs are used to treat schizophrenia and other mental health disorders.

TD causes stiff, jerky movements of your face and body that you can’t control. You might blink your eyes, stick out your tongue, or wave your arms without meaning to do so.

Not everyone who takes an antipsychotic drug will get it. But if TD happens, it’s sometimes permanent. So if you have movements you can’t control, let your doctor know right away. To ease your symptoms, your doctor may:

Lower the dose
Add another medication to counteract the movements
Switch you to a different drug

Reference: WebMD – Tardive Dyskenisia 

General Medicine Research Studies

Segal Trials is currently offering General Medicine outpatient and inpatient research studies for the following indications. If you would like to participate, please contact us for more information.


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